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ISO 19104:2016 pdf free

ISO 19104:2016 pdf free.Geographic information一Terminology
The development of terminology requires a detailed understanding of the concepts that characterize the domain or subject area.
Concepts do not exist as isolated units of knowledge but always in relation to each other. Concepts that are structured according to the relations among them are said to form a concept system. A concept system provides a structural representation of the concepts of a subject field. Its modelling requires that the concepts of the subject field be examined and compared. The comparison process helps avoid gaps and overlaps being introduced into the conceptual model.
When organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to be cognisant of the subject field that gave rise to the concept, and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field is established (see ISO 704:2009, 5.5.1).
Concepts and terms develop differently in individual languages and language communities, depending on professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other factors (see ISO 860:2007,0.1). Any asymmetry between languages may result in some unexpected anomalies. For example, the concept “library” in English corresponds to two concepts in Japanese: “toshokan” and “toshoshitsu”.
Similarly, the English terms “period” and “periodic time” best translate to “periode” in French. Concept harmonization, within and between domains (and also across multiple languages), may therefore be necessary. Harmonization starts at the concept level and continues at the term level. It is an integral part of standardization.
The principles and methods for identifying concepts and developing concept systems are specified in ISO 704.
It is important to recognize that different cultures may perceive and conceptualize the same object in different ways. Standardized concepts, concept systems and terminological entries may, therefore,require both structural adaptation and language translation when being imported into an alternative cultural and linguistic environment. The existence of preferred terms, admitted terms and deprecated terms for a concept in one language does not necessarily mean that there will be parallel preferred terms, admitted terms and deprecated terms for the same concept in other languages. The same is true for abbreviated forms of terms.ISO 19104 pdf free.

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