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ISO 18337:2015 pdf free

ISO 18337:2015 pdf free.Surface chemical analysis一Surface characterization一Measurement of the lateral resolution of a confocal fluorescence microscope
CFM is one of the most widely used LSCM operation modes because it provides a fluorescence image or spectrum. In the fluorescence mode, the incident laser light is blocked by a long pass filter, and only the Stokes-shifted fluorescence light is detected by the photo detector or spectrometer. An image is formed, depending on the fluorescence wavelength, and the image displays good contrast compared to images obtained through other optical imaging techniques. Imaging multiple colours in one image is also possible.
The spatial resolution is one of the most important features characterizing the performance of an LSCM or CFM. The lateral resolution and axial resolution must be determined separately and must be treated independently. The lateral resolution is important especially when a CFM is used for the imaging and chemical analysis of thin films or nanoscale objects, in which the axial dimension is significantly less than the typical value of the axial resolution of a CFM.
The spatial resolutions of instruments tend to be characterized in different ways by different manufacturers. This work provides one convenient and effective method for measuring the lateral spatial resolution of a CFM instrument so as to be suitable for use by a non-expert operator. The terms and analysis procedure described here are according to ISO 18516[3].
Off-axis beam scanning techniques can incur aberrations that degrade the image resolution. A fast oscillating mirror set may be used to scan a beam across a sample more rapidly than is possible in stage scanning-type CFM. The scanning rate can sometimes reach values of a few kHz line scan speed. In this approach, the sample does not move, thereby preserving the condition of the sample.
Because the optical ray is off- axis during laser focus scanning, some aberrations may be introduced into the image. The need for a scanning head makes this technique more complicated than techniques based on stage scanning. The size of a scan area is limited because an objective will admit off-axis laser light within only limited angle. The size of a scanning area also depends on the magnification of the objective. The use of low magnification objectives (resulting in a large scan area) which at the same time have a high NA (which results in a good collection efficiency and an improved resolution) is preferential in this case.ISO 18337 pdf free.

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