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BS ISO 18924:2013 pdf free

BS ISO 18924:2013 pdf free.Imaging materials一Test method for Arrhenius-type predictions
In the 1890s, Svante Arrhenius discovered that the rate of some chemical reactions is proportional to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. This relationship has been used with phenomena related to a chemical change, such as the loss of a particular physical property or the change in the optical density of film. If a linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the time for a change of a particular property and the reciprocal of the temperature, then this plot can be extrapolated to lower temperatures than those used in laboratory studies. This allows the prediction of the time required for the change to happen at room temperature or lower.
This relationship was first used for the rates of chemical reactions[2] and was later applied to paper materials.[3.4] This theory became the basis for TAPPI Standard 453.[5] The approach was also applied to textiles[6] and to physical properties of photographic film supports.[7.8] More recently, it has been used to predict the fading of both chromogenic and non-chromogenic photographic dyes.[9-11]
Predictions based on the Arrhenius equation require the reactions to be run under a series of temperatures at either constant relative humidity (free-hanging) or constant moisture content inside the enclosure. The investigator shall determine which of the above conditions is more relevant to the system being tested.
There may also be cases where elevated temperatures cause different reaction pathways from those occurring at ambient or sub-ambient conditions. In these cases, the plot of the logarithm of time versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature will be nonlinear and great caution shall be taken in drawing conclusions. Only the linear and lower temperature portion of the plot can be extrapolated to ambient conditions or below.
The drawback to elimination of higher temperature data is that the experiment will then take longer because of the slow reaction rate at lower temperatures. Patience is the only solution for getting the correct answer when this happens. When incubations are limited to a few of the higher temperatures, this can lead to incorrect or misleading results and shall be done with extreme caution.
Confidence in the Arrhenius methodology is obtained when predictions for phenomena with reasonably short lifetimes correspond to the real-time results. Such data do exist for the fading of photographic dyes[12,13] and the stability of cellulose ester film supports.[8,14].BS ISO 18924 pdf download.

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